Friday , July 30 2021

CERN data on the behavior of “beauty quarks” can rewrite physics as we know it

Beauty quarks or B-meson particles do not decay as they should, and while the findings may justify “prudent arousal,” more research is needed, scientists say.

FILE PHOTO: A view of the large drone collider at CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland.

FILE PHOTO: A view of the large drone collider at CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland. (CERN)

CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has announced a new discovery that may change the way we think about physics.

CERN is an international laboratory whose work “helps to discover what the universe is made of and how it works.”

According to one article inside the guardian“Scientists at the Large Hadron Collider, near Geneva, have seen an unusual signal in their data that it may be the first indication of a new type of physics.”

The LHC has four main teams working on it. The LHCb (Large Hadron Collider Beauty) collaboration has analyzed 10 years of data on B mesons. B mesons are unstable particles that are momentarily created in the LHC and that “disintegrate into materials known as electrons”.

The standard model of particle physics is what the BBC calls “The best theory we have for explaining the large-scale functioning of the world around us,” while admitting that the SM is “a springboard toward a more complete understanding of the cosmos.”

Deviation from the standard model?

Mitesh Patel, of Imperial College London, told BBC News: “In fact, we were shaking when we first saw the results. We were so excited. Our heart was beating a little faster.”

“It’s too early to tell if this is really a deviation from the standard model, but the potential implications are such that these results are the most exciting thing I’ve done in the field for 20 years. It’s been a long journey to get here.”

The standard model suggests that particles should decompose into products that include electrons “at exactly the same rate as products that include a heavier electron cousin, called a muon,” according to the Guardian report.

However, in the LHCb experiment, this did not happen: it turned out that the end result was more electrons than muons. The Guardian writes, “Instead of producing electrons and muons at the same rate, nature seems to favor the path that ends with electrons.”

According to BBC News, the LHCb produces subatomic particles called “beauty quarks”, which are not usually found in nature … Subatomic particles undergo a process known as disintegration, where one particle transforms into several less massive ones. “

The standard model predicts that “beauty quarks should decay into an equal number of electron and muon particles. Instead, the process produces more electrons than muons.

One possible explanation is that an as yet undiscovered particle known as a leptoquark participated in the decay process and facilitated the production of electrons.

READ MORE: The discovery of “exotic” particles can change everything

“Intriguing advice”

“We would expect this particle to decay into the final state containing electrons and the final state containing muons at the same rate as each other,” said Professor Chris Parkes, spokesman for the LHCb collaboration and particle physicist. experimental at the University of Manchester. “What we have is an intriguing clue that maybe these two processes don’t happen at the same pace, but it’s not conclusive.”

In order for particle physicists to announce a new discovery, a result is expected to reach a significance of five sigma. What this means is that “the possibility of it being a statistical peculiarity is reduced to one in a few million.”

The result of the LHCb experiment has a significance of 3.1 sigma, which is why scientists are more careful when celebrating it. This means that the chance of the result being an error is about one in 1,000.

“It’s an intriguing track, but before we saw sigma come and go. It happens surprisingly often, ”Parkes said.

Dark energy

The standard model of particle physics, which was explained over the last half century, does not explain the whole world of physics. For example, although it explains three out of four fundamental forces of nature, it fails to describe gravity and “says nothing about 95% of the universe that physicists believe is not constructed from normal matter. “.

According to the report, scientists believe that much of the cosmos consists of dark energy, “a force that seems to drive the expansion of the universe” and dark matter, “a mysterious substance that seems to maintain the cosmic web of matter.” like an invisible skeleton “.

“If it turned out, with an additional analysis of additional processes, that we could confirm, it would be extremely exciting,” Parkes said. It would mean that there is something wrong with the standard model and that we need something additional in our fundamental theory of particle physics to explain how this would happen.

Parkes said that while there is still uncertainty about the outcome of the LHCb experiment, physicists are “cautiously” excited about the evolution of this and other results in the B innings.

“It simply came to our notice then. We are intrigued because this result is not only quite significant, but it fits the pattern of some previous LHCb results and other experiments around the world, ”he said.

Ben Allanach, a professor of theoretical physics at Cambridge University, is a scientist who finds the result exciting, especially when taken with other discoveries. “I really think this is going to become something,” he said.

If the result turns out to be true, it could be explained by hitherto hypothetical particles called thin Z or leptoquarks that bring new forces to other particles, according to the Guardian report.

“There could be a new quantum force that causes the B mesons to break into muons at the wrong rate. It’s sticking them in and letting them disintegrate into muons at the rate we’d expect,” Allanach said. to explain the peculiar pattern of the masses of the different particles of matter “.

“B mesons contain elementary particles called beauty quarks, also known as background quarks.” the guardian explain.

According to The Guardian, scientists will collect more data from the LHC and other experiments around the world, such as Belle II in Japan, in hopes of confirming what is happening.

Source: TRTWorld and agencies

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