Sunday , September 26 2021

Astronomers first clearly detect the disks that make up the moon around exoplanets

This image was made with the Atacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Wave Array (ALMA) wave array with which ESO is a partner, showing the wide (left) and foreground (right) moon formation disks that surround the young Jupiter PDS 70c. Show the view. Like a planet almost 400 light-years away. The enlarged view shows the central front of the PDS 70c and its circumplanetary disk, with a large disk resembling a circumstellar disk that occupies most of the right side of the image. The PDS70 star is in the center of the panoramic image on the left. Two planets, PDS70c and PDS70b, were found in the system, the latter not shown in this image. They devoured matter from the circumstellar disk itself, cutting cavities in the circumstellar disk as it grew in size. In this process, the PDS 70c acquired its own circumplanetary disk. This contributes to the growth of the planet and the formation of the moon. This circumplanetary disk is as large as the distance between the Sun and Earth and has enough mass to form up to three moon-sized satellites. Credit: ALMA (ESO / NAOJ / NRAO) / Benisty et al.

Using the Atacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Array (ALMA) matrix, associated with the Southern European Observatory (ESO), astronomers have for the first time clearly detected the presence of disks around the planets outside the solar system. The observations will shed new light on how the Moon and planets form in young stellar systems.

“Our work is the album Miriam Benisti, researcher at the University of Grenoble and the University of Chile in France, led a new study announced today. Astrophysics magazine letter“Our ALMA observations were made with such exquisite resolution that we were able to clearly identify that the disk was associated with a planet and limit its size for the first time,” he adds.

The disk in question, called the Circumplanetary Disk, surrounds the extrasolar planet PDS70c, one of two giant things resembling Jupiter. Planet orbits a star almost 400 light-years away. Astronomers had found advice Previously, there was a “moon-forming” disk around this exoplanet, but so far its detection could not be confirmed because the disk could not be clearly distinguished from the surrounding environment.

In addition, with the help of ALMA, Benisti and his team have too much for the disk to have approximately the same diameter as the distance from the Sun to the Earth and form up to three satellites the size of the moon. I found that there are.

But results are not the only key to knowing how satellites are generated. “These new observations are also very important in proving the theory of planet formation that could not be tested before,” said the researcher and author of the Earth and Planetary Institute at the Carnegie Institute of Science in the United States. Says a Jehan Be.

The planets form in a dusty disk around a young star, which opens cavities as it devours matter and grows. In this process, the planet can acquire its own circumplanetary disk. And it contributes to the growth of the planet by adjusting the amount of matter that falls on it. At the same time, the gas and dust from the circumplanetary disk can become larger objects due to multiple collisions, which end up causing the birth of satellites.

However, astronomers do not yet fully understand the details of these processes. “In short, it’s still unclear when, where and how planets and satellites are formed,” explains Stefano Faccini, an ESO researcher who is also involved in the research.

“So far more than 4000 exoplanets have been discovered, all of them detected in mature systems. The PDS70b and PDS70c, which form a system reminiscent of the Jupiter-Saturn pair, have so far done so. Only two exoplanets have been detected, in the process of formation “, explains Miriam Kepler, researcher and co-author of the study at the Maxplank Institute of Astronomy in Germany.

“Therefore, this system provides us with a unique opportunity to observe and study the process of formation of planets and satellites,” Faccini adds.

The two planets that make up the system, PDS70b and PDS70c, were first discovered with ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) in 2018 and 2019, respectively. Its unique nature means that it has been observed many times with other telescopes and instruments since then.

The latest high-resolution ALMA observations give astronomers more information about the system. In addition to confirming the detection of the circumplanetary disk around PDS 70c and examining its size and mass, PDS 70b shows no clear evidence of this disk, and PDS 70c lacks dust material from the environment of birth. Indicates that it is. ..

A deeper understanding of the planetary system is achieved with the ESO Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) that is currently being built in the Atacama Desert, the Atacama Desert in Chile. “ELT will be key to this study because it can map the system in great detail to much higher resolutions,” said co-author Richard Teague, a researcher at the Center for Astrophysics. Harvard & Smithsonian, USA. In particular, the ELT Medium Infrared ELT image and spectrograph (METIS) will allow teams to study the motion of the gas surrounding the PDS 70c and obtain a complete 3D image of the system.

This study was published in a treatise entitled “Circumplanetary Disk Around PDS70c”. Astrophysics magazine letter..

Moon-forming disk located around a distant planet

For more information:
“Circumplanetary disk around PDS70c” Astrophysics magazine letter (2021). … 847 / 2041-8213 / ac0f83

Date: Astronomers are exoplanets acquired at on July 22, 2021 (July 22, 2021). First the disk that forms the moon around is clearly detected. html

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