Reflection always reproduces objects as complete mirrors, and not only individual parts or individual parts in a completely different orientation. That's all or nothing, the mirror can not be reflected only a little. This illustrates the basic principle of symmetry in nature. For decades, physics assumed that the laws of nature in our world and in the mirror world would be identical, that the parity would be preserved. In 1956, in the area of elemental particles, or more precisely in the domain of poor interaction, the researchers found a violation of this principle. The breach of parity has since been a topic of scientific research. Physicists at the Johannes Gutenberg Mainz University (JGU) have recently been able to monitor parity violations in itterbium atoms with different neutrons. The initial measurement effect is to confirm the predictions of the Standard Particle Physics model so that atoms with different neutrons show a parity violation. The research was published in Nature of physics newspaper.
The effect of parity violation increases with the number of neutrons
For parity violations, it is known only in poor interaction, one of the four primary forces of nature. It was first discovered in beta decay in 1956, in atoms in 1979, and then studied in various elements. In 1995, at the University of California, Berkeley, Professor Dmitry Budker began to perform precise measurements on the itterbium element, a rare earth metal. That was the job he brought with him when he came to the University of Mainz in 2014. "Our research involves various isterbium isotopes. Isotopes are atoms with the same number of protons, but different neutrons in the nucleus," explained Dr. Dionisis Antipas Institute Helmholtz Mainz (HIM). "We chose a chain of four isotope isterbiums and confirmed the predictions of the Standard Model: as much neutrons in the core, the greater the effect of parity violations," Antipas said, summarizing the results of four years of work in the project.
Comparison of the effect in different isotopes was first proposed by prof. Victor Flambaum 1986. Flambaum, an Australian physicist at the University of New South Wales, was a member of the research college of the Gutenberg Research Center (GRC) in Mainz for two years and conducted a collaborative study with JGU scientists. Physicists carried out research using the apparatus at the Helmholtz Institute Mainz: in the presence of electric and magnetic fields, the atherium atrium atrium is excited by laser light and measures the amplitude of parity violation.
The results influence a further investigation of the core of iterbia
"The latest findings indicate a significant milestone in the investigation of atomic parity violations," Budker said, summarizing the data. "They are also a significant turning point in the way of future research goals." Measurements of scientists also provide information on the extra Z bone. They interact with bosons with poor interaction. Scientists in the field speculate about the existence of another Z boson, which is called "Z prime" or "Z" with a much smaller mass than the one established by Z boson.
In the future, Budker and Antipas plan to study the nucleus of the yterbium to determine the distribution of their neutrons and study the weak interaction between the nucleons. These projects are in line with the MESA program and projects of the PRISMA + cluster of excellence at the Johannes Gutenberg Mainz University.
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