Diabetes is one of the most common diseases. If left untreated, the organs are damaged, in the worst case a diabetic coma occurs with fatal consequences.
- Doctors differentiate between type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. The first form is triggered by a false reaction of the immune system itself and usually begins at an early age. The patient’s immune system attacks the cells in the pancreas that produce the hormone insulin.
- More than 5 million people in Germany are affected by diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus or diabetes *. Of these, more than 90% have type 2 diabetes, according to Diabetes Germany. This form of the disease is also known as adult-onset diabetes. Obesity, poor diet, smoking or exercising too much are risk factors.
- Find out here what symptoms speak of diabetes and what to do immediately in case of diabetic coma.
Regardless of type 1 or 2 diabetes: both metabolic disorders have the same consequence. Sugar metabolism does not work normally, which permanently raises the blood sugar level. The reason for this: the body can no longer produce the hormone insulin in sufficient quantities (type 1 diabetes) or can no longer use it properly (type 2 diabetes). Diabetes should be treated in any case, because a high blood sugar level damages the blood vessels, which can cause sensory disturbances such as tingling in the feet. Organs such as the kidney are also damaged. In the worst case, patients fall into a diabetic coma, with life-threatening consequences.
Recognizing type 2 diabetes: The following symptoms should be taken seriously
According to the portal diabetes-deutschland.de, doctors suspect that there is a high number of patients with unrecognized diabetes. The reason for this is that the symptoms of diabetes can often not be clearly assigned, but they can also talk about other diseases. The following symptoms may indicate type 2 diabetes as the most common form of the disease:
- strong set
- extreme hunger
- frequent urination
- chronic fatigue and lack of driving
- Pain and tingling in the arms, legs, hands or feet
- dry skin
- Weak feeling
- blurred vision
- healing wounds slowly
- frequent infectious diseases
- light headed
- Decreased consciousness and loss of consciousness (diabetic coma) with extremely high blood sugar levels
Type 2 diabetes can develop over the years without symptoms, as provided by the Health Information Portal of the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG). Therefore, the diagnosis is often unexpected.
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Diet in diabetes
The book “Diabetes: The Shopping Advisor from AZ” by GU (promotional link) offers diabetics an overview of the right foods. For example, the carbohydrate exchange table shows at a glance how many grams of carbohydrate-providing staple foods correspond to exactly one unit of bread. Another extensive table lists from basic meals to fast food dishes with information on units of bread, carbohydrates, kcal, protein and fat per 100 g and per serving serving size.
Act immediately in diabetic coma
There are different forms of diabetic coma, on the one hand, the hyperosmolar coma and, on the other, the ketoacidotic coma. The former usually affects type 2 diabetics. Blood sugar levels above 600 mg / dl occur, causing a large loss of fluid in the body. Increased urine excretion causes electrolyte loss: Affected people literally dry internally (desiccation). Usually, only patients with type 1 diabetes are affected by ketoacidotic or acidic coma. Metabolic imbalances occur because there is a lack of insulin in the body, for example, when people forget to inject insulin.
Hyperosmolar coma is significantly rarer than ketoacidotic and usually develops slowly over days and weeks, reports diabetes-ratgeber.net. Fatigue, vision problems, calf cramps, or weight loss are precursors that precede hyperosmolar coma, Heilpraxisnet reports. Medical clarification is needed so that diabetes can be properly controlled and therefore a diabetic coma can be prevented. To avoid an overly acidic coma, patients with high blood sugar (above 250 mg / dl) and a body test for ketone indicating excess acidity should take the countermeasures discussed with their doctor. When in doubt, however, you should always call the 112 emergency number.
Treatment of type 2 diabetes: change your diet to medication
According to the guidelines, the basic therapy for type 2 diabetes involves a change in diet and exercise. This also includes patient training, non-smoking strategies and stress control, ”reports the German Diabetes Research Center (DZD). Depending on the stage of the disease, antidiabetic drugs are also used in the form of tablets or special drugs for injection.. According to the DZD, insulin therapy is usually needed in advanced diabetes. (jg) * Merkur.de belongs to the Ippen-Digital publishing network throughout Germany.
Sources: https://gesund.bund.de/diabetes-typ-1?pk_campaign=ghp; https://www.diabetes-deutschland.de/archiv/796.html .; https://www.bundesgesundheitsministerium.de/themen/praevention/gesundheitsgefahren/diabetes.html
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