Half of women will develop dementia, Parkinson's or have a stroke in their lifetime, while only a third of men will be affected the same way. But why is this?
Dutch scientists say preventive measures can greatly reduce chances for these three neurological diseases, while charities on dementia say adult adults in the middle group can reduce the risk of illness and eat more and exercise more exercises.
This is a long-term study that requires changes over time.
When it started at Rotterdam University, all 12,000 people involved were under 45 years old and their health was followed by 26 years.
Between 1990 and 2016, a team of researchers found 1,489 dementia diagnoses.
Another 1,285 suffered a stroke, while 263 were diagnosed with Parkinson's.
The analysis showed that women had a higher risk (48%) than developing one of the conditions of men (36%).
Dementia was the most common concern for women – 26% compared with 14% for men – but rates for stroke were similar in men and women.
Risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol and type 2 diabetes, were higher in affected patients.
The result is that the team estimates that the risk of developing these offensive conditions could be reduced by a fifth by adopting a healthier life while people are still in the middle ages.
A wide range of studies shows eating a balanced diet, adhering to healthy weight and exercise can prevent dementia.
Studies have determined that they do not smoke, drink within the recommended limits and maintain blood pressure and check cholesterol.
Dr James Pickett, head of research at Alzheimer's Society, praised the work that says: "This study further highlights the well-established fact that women have a higher risk of dementia than men.
"But it also shows that taking a measure of a proactive healthy lifestyle can significantly reduce the risk of dementia, regardless of age."
Dr Pickett pointed out that patients with dementia were more likely to have high blood pressure, adding "it's never too late" to adopt a healthy lifestyle.
Claire Bale, head of research communications in Parkinson's UK, said: "Parkinson's will grow to 170,000 by 2020 by 2020 due to our growing and aging population.
"However, it is important to point out that, unlike dementia, women are actually at a somewhat lower risk of developing Parkinson than men."
The same messages are repeated over and over again. If you want to be healthy in old age, the healthy lifestyle you have started in your 40s is the best way to achieve this.