Thursday , December 9 2021

Learn more about electricity – why should not the batteries be completely emptied and emptied? / Article / LSM.LV


The world is working to improve the ability of the battery to store energy. Kristaps Vitols, a researcher in Latvia, also deals with him. In the LTV broadcast, Cognitive Impulse, he says that the battery life should not be completely full and completely discharged.

How is the victory of civilization in exchange for electricity?

  • 6th century BC. In Ancient Greece. Jaho discovered a static electricity rubbing a piece of amber against the wool.
  • In 1771, Italian physician Luigi Galvani noticed that the bar was caught in the leg when it turned.
  • In 1800, Italian physicist, Alessandro Volta, created the first electric battery.
  • In 1820, Andre Marie Amper realized how he influenced the current magnetic field.
  • In 1831, Michael Faradai discovered electromagnetic induction and laid the foundations for the creation of an electric motor.
  • The American inventor, Thomas Edison, patented the first light bulb in 1879.

It was said that at the time Faraday showed a breakthrough in his country's prime minister, the politician asked if he had any benefit. At that time, Faraday found – I do not know, but I am convinced that it will be possible to collect taxes.

In the meantime, in the second science, the legendary personality of Nicholas Tesla went a different way – he had the idea to make free electricity for everyone. The basic idea of ​​the Tesla disc is that the object in the city center generates electricity, but the bulbs or any other non-wire electrical equipment obtain the necessary energy from it. The problem was that the number of users was very small. So, the idea of ​​Tesla Reel at least now seems like an expensive and inefficient way of delivering electricity to consumers. Who knows, perhaps the idea of ​​electricity that is available as a wireless Internet is not the right time.

Much better with James M. Maxwell, why his ideas go to work. His idea of ​​how a moving magnet produces electricity has made great progress in the development of civilization. Magnet drives electrons like water. Otherwise, for such a comparison, the same electricity is often used, and where there is water, there are also current or current and all connected measurement units.

Basic principles of electrical physics

Then what is the current flow? These are electrons – small particles in small atoms. Some basic principles of physics must be kept in mind to understand why electrons form electricity.

Physicists illustrate electrons such as balls, which, as in any case, have very negligible but nevertheless attractive forces, but unlike others, have a very pronounced rejection force. Since non-electron atoms also have other particles – protons, they communicate with one another. Usually, there is no protons in the atom, so much of an electron, and we do not feel any special electrical discharges. By time, for example, when we rub one surface to another, we get electrons from one surface to another, and then the number of particles changes, they begin to attract particles of other objects. And all this can be measured as a current.

Electrical charges can be transferred from one surface to another. For example, this happens every time hair is emitted, synthetic clothes, even if they pull their legs to the ground and touch metal objects.

The electromagnetic field, on the other hand, determines whether the electrons will move as a bridging river and form a direct current or will fly down 50 times per second, generating alternating current.

Research on energy storage

All types of electricity that are currently available, other than solar energy, generate alternating current. However, only one current can accumulate. Direct current is a form in which energy is stored in batteries, and the types of batteries are diverse as well as tasks: to manage devices, to accumulate the energy produced.

The way how long and how long batteries can store energy directly depends on the chemical elements in them. The battery charger, on the other hand, affects the behavior of these elements. "At the moment when energy is accumulated, some of the ions are moving from one side to the other, and the current does not enter in. When you charge the battery, the ions are aligned on the other side and waiting. We connect the external load and the current starts running in the opposite direction , and the ions are moving backwards, which is why they are at the second level of balance, "explains Kristaps Vitols, a researcher at the Institute of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering in Riga (RTU).

When the batteries become empty or do not perform their task, they do not perform the necessary reactions, so that the particles do not stand in the right places. "It's not right to drop the battery to the end. Because then the jones went to the other side, they settled in their place, and the longer they there, the more they prefer to stay there. Then the batteries begin to fall in capacity It can not accumulate so much and can not work for a long time, "says Vitol.

This means that the battery should not be fully charged and completely discharged. "In one case, the ions remain on one side and the other on the other side.

Both these extreme points degrade the battery, "explains the researcher.

Recently, it was believed that the batteries should not be partially refilled, because they then recalled their condition figuratively and did not try to be stuffed. It turns out – this is neither a myth nor the truth, because everything lies in it, where the batteries are made from. "Those built into devices, such as lithium-ion batteries, have no memory effect. In the past there were nickel-cadmium batteries that were memorized – if they were semi-charged, then only half worked," said Vitol.

In order to further improve the capacity of an energy storage battery, the world does not make millions in this industry. In Latvia, Kristaps Vitols is one of those scientists who, in search of the best battery solutions, takes care of them just like a living organism. "There is no electronics, just chemistry and material science, designed to keep the batteries longer, better and cheaper. When transplanted, cells must be combined with schemes that take care of the welfare of each cell," explains the researcher.

The battery's battery life depends on the temperature, but in order to have the accumulated electrons, they must be able to move.

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