In phase 4, the kidneys deteriorate moderately or severely. You may have back pain, more swelling in the limbs, fatigue and trouble concentrating, as well as changes in urination. Your MER may drop between 15 and 29.
When you reach the fifth phase, known as end-stage renal failure, the kidneys lose the ability to effectively filter fluids, electrolytes, and waste from the body. Some of the symptoms include itching, muscle cramps, swelling in the limbs, insomnia, back pain and changes in urination, including frothy urine. You may also lose your appetite.
Although it is estimated that 47 percent of people over the age of 7 have kidney disease, according to Johns Hopkins researchers, it only progresses to kidney failure in 1 to 2 percent of these patients, according to the National Kidney Foundation. . At this stage, “people can experience dialysis for years,” Parsa says of the treatment that mechanically filters the blood and removes toxins.
Prevention and treatments to know
Parsa says the best way to protect yourself from kidney disease is to keep your blood pressure and blood sugar under control. In addition, studies show that following the Mediterranean diet, which focuses on eating fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts and whole grains, can help reduce the risk of kidney problems.
If you already have advanced kidney disease, your doctor may ask you to restrict protein-rich foods, as well as foods and beverages that contain the minerals potassium, phosphorus, and sodium, such as bananas.
Until recently, doctors relied primarily on drugs called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors to slow the progression of kidney disease because they help relax veins and arteries, which lowers blood pressure. Recent trials show that some newer diabetes medications, such as Jardiance, can be used in addition to ACE inhibitors to reduce the risk of kidney disease in adults with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.