This is a story about a man who began to write pseudonym comic books, when the comic book was difficult to consider, and who superheroes made alpha and omega of modern culture. Stan Lee, the legendary creator, among others, Spiderman, Fantastic Four, Hulk and Iron Man, died on Monday, aged 95. His name may not be telling everyone, but he still appears in the form of all the films of superhero Marvel, a genre that has been dominant in the film industry for ten years. And if, 50 years after his most important endeavors, Stan Lee's leg is still a box, it's no coincidence.
Heroes like us. Stanley Lieber joined the "House of Ideas" of the 40s when the ideas were just downstairs. After the war, Captain America, the hero of Timeline Comics (formerly Marvel's name), stands out from the pair. DC Comics, which rules most in the little world of comics, a genre that is not well considered in American literature. The publisher relies on the success of superhero carved into a granite: irreparable Batman, invincible Superman or Amazone Vonder Voman. All are described as superman, even gods, placed above common mortals, in a parallel world.
Stan Lee's idea of genius, loyal to Marvel, despite close bankruptcy, was to reverse the paradigm, in order to make superheroes human. An example with Spider-Man: "Is the character known for the designer, Steve Ditke, who defined costumes and powers, or the author, Stan Leeu, who created his student pseudonym Peter Parker? If another beast was bitten by him, In fact, if Spiderman succeeded, it was first thanks to Peter Parker, says Xavier Fournier, a comic writer, the author among other things Superhero, vice versa (Fantask ed.)
Stan Lee makes the evil more human
Xavier Fournier, a writer specializing in superheroes
A man beneath the costumes. In DC comics, heroes are male men, very mature, and teenagers are just "batsmen", turbulent buddies like Robin, Batman spends his time teaching. "Stan Lee is changing the game by creating a lot of young superheroes like Spider-Man or the first X-Men," says Xavier Fournier. A smart but desecrating student, a victim of a family tragedy that haunts him, prey to doubt heart problems, Peter Parker is a character that all young readers can recognize. X-Men, mutants empowered, but captured by the authorities, talk to all those who feel marginalized.
And when heroes are not teenagers, they are still humans. If it's difficult to identify with Tony Stark, an extravagant billionaire under Iron Man, he's touching his readers with his obvious weaknesses (alcoholism, post-traumatic stress disorder). Ditto for Fantastic Four, known scientists who live extraordinary adventures, but spend most of their time discussing and talking about their relationships. Without going so far as to turn them into "Mister-all-world", "The Stan Man" brings his superheroes to the reader and integrates them into well-known patterns. "Basically, Peter Parker is part of Zol's literary tradition, Hulk is another story by Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hide," says Xavier Fournier.
The psychologist ends up. Stan Lee's second great success story is about criminals. After declaring that there is no good story without a good bad guy, he attaches particular importance to the psychology of his antagonists. Where Batman and Superman are fighting gangsters and monsters, "Stan Lee makes evil more human," says Xavier Fournier. He also goes to Sandman, who begins to pay the crime to care for his seriously ill daughter. "Magneto, the criminal of Ks-Men, is undoubtedly one of the most ambitious." Haunted by Shoah, his understanding of good and evil is ambiguous, as well as many of the criminals Stan Lee, we do not want to see him in his living room. but we can understand his motivation, "says Xavier Fournier.
Stan Lee brings chances, humor and social diversity to superheroes
Xavier Fournier, a writer specializing in superheroes
Characters that are neither whites nor blacks and rooted in the real world: Stan Lee has forged this trademark in his experience as an author. Although he is always connected with superheroes, he worked in other areas. "In the 1950s, he no longer believed in the future of superheroes and began to write" strips, "short comics comics in everyday situations," said Xavier Fournier. When Marvel's boss orders a superhero series that will again compete with DC Comics, Stan Lee deals with this experience. "Convinced that this would not work, he took a lot of freedom with codes of super-heroic genre and he brought to the world a counter, humor and social diversity."
Movies that respect Stanley's vision. It is a leg that represents a thread of Marvel films produced since 2008. When the "House of Ideas" decides to launch an expanded cinematic universe, it discovers Stan Lee's recipe – which is no longer written since the seventies: the mix of dynamic action, social anchoring and school humor. "The films are largely in line with Stan Lee's vision. avengers The cardboard cardboard is just as much about the action scenario as it's about heroes who do not stop fighting. This predator, this permanent counter, is Stan Lee in the text, "says Xavier Fournier.
In total, 20 films from Marvel film universe began Iron Man in 2008 reported $ 17.5 billion worldwide ($ 15.6 billion), more than any other saga in the history of the cinema (and this does not take into account Ks-Men movies, Sony products). In France, 537 million people attacked dark rooms to see these films. The latest, Avengers: Infiniti Var (released in May), reported a trillion dollars (1.8 billion euros), a franchise record. The rest is expected in May 2019.
And if the genre is very popular today, it is largely due to the impulse released by the Stan Man in 1960. Hulk, Iron Man, Spider-Man and X-Men are still part of the superhero most suited to the big screen. This wealth in character profiles has helped the genre become super-heroic "polymorphic," says Xavier Fournier. Where Batman is connected with the detective film Superman and fantasy, "you can do everything with Marvel's Heroes, remix everything." "If we look good, Captain America: Winter soldier these are three days of the Superhero Condor version. Even Robert Redford exists in common! ", Illustrates Ksavier Fournier.
More than ever. Style Li Sten should survive his creator, first because Marvel has a full list of films in his boxes for the next decade. Then, because the vision of the thief superhero remains contemporary. "In such a divided America, the issues that Stan Lee visited were more relevant than ever, and his texts written in the 1960s, in which he spoke of the issue of racism, may have been written yesterday," said Xavier Fournier.
The latest proof: a commercial and social phenomenon Black PanterT & # 39; Challa, one of the rare black superheroes (along with Stan Lee), immediately became the black totem of the world around the world. As for Stan Lee, he has previously recorded several stories, these humorous short appearances in the Marvel films he was used to, so he should be around his creators for some time.