Researchers at Baylor College of Medicine (USA) have found an association between the quality of the diet and the composition of the microbiome in the human intestinal mucosa, where a high quality diet is linked to potentially beneficial bacteria while a diet of Low quality is associated with the appearance of pathogenic bacteria.
The findings, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition indicate that a good quality diet is associated with bacteria that have anti-inflammatory properties, while a poor quality diet is associated with potentially pathogenic bacteria such as Fusobacteria, related with colorectal cancer.
The researchers used next-generation sequencing techniques to analyze the type and abundance of bacteria present in the colon mucosa biopsies. The samples were obtained endoscopically from participants 50 to 75 years of age and performed between 2013 and 2017.
"A new contribution to this work is that we observe the microbiome associated with the mucous membranes of the colon," said Dr. Jiao, a member of the Dan Duncan Comprehensive Cancer Center at Baylor College of Medicine. "Most other studies of the human intestinal microbiomy used fecal samples. We observe the microbiome associated with the mucosa of the colon because we know that this microbiome is different from that of the fecal samples, and it is said that it is more related to human immunity and with the host-microbiome interaction that the one of the fecal samples ".
The researchers point out that the effect of diet on bacteria in the mucosa of the colon can lead to changes in innate immunity, inflammation and the risk of chronic diseases.
"Other factors, such as aging, genetics or certain medications, also influence the risk of illness, but we can not modify them," explained Dr. Jiao. "The diet, on the other hand, can be modified and, therefore, provides a strategy to develop a microbiome that promotes a healthy life.