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Children are the most valuable thing we have. Protect them by vaccination!



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BRATISLAVA, November 13, 2018 (VBN / PR) – children, adults, pregnant women, travelers, people at higher risk of infection and professionals who face infectious diseases – all need vaccinations to protect health and life. If there is no protection of the population by vaccination, there are epidemics – and the recent mosquito epidemic in eastern Slovakia in May 2018. Evidence suggests that a drop in vaccination will cause a serious and poor change in public health, unnecessary illness and death.

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"Every reduction in vaccination reduces the effect of collective protection, which means increasing the risk of epidemics and endangering the most vulnerable," said professor Zuzana Krištufkova. Photo: SANOFI

At the turn of the 20th century, the greatest health threats were contagious and parasitic diseases, which most often required the lives of babies and children. Since the introduction of vaccination, the lifespan has increased for 15 to 25 years. Further prolongation of life is expected and evidence suggests that it has significantly contributed to the management of disease due to vaccination. Vaccination today can prevent contagious diseases, and on the horizon are new vaccines with the potential to prevent other infectious diseases. High-vaccination programs have been shown to be successful in controlling or even eliminating the disease. History shows that reducing vaccine coverage opens the way to repeat the disease in a population that is already protected. With stable and high inoculum coverage, the disease collapses, and some can be completely extinct. Despite the undeniable success of vaccination efforts, 1.5 million people die annually due to vaccine-preventable diseases. According to VHO, vaccines will be the most important means of reducing high morbidity and mortality that is permanently associated with influenza pandemics. Every year, about 3.5 million people are infected with a flu virus, which leads to 650 000 deaths. In 1990, infectious diseases accounted for 33% of all deaths, in 2010 it was only 25%.

In addition to being able to prevent death and suffering, vaccines are one of the cheapest healthcare investments. The vaccination significantly reduced the economic burden of the company with infectious diseases. In addition to protecting life and reducing disability, vaccination can also alleviate pressure on health systems, due to the lower incidence visits to the doctor and hospitalization; and also reduce downtime and loss costs productivity caused by various diseases. Vaccination can help avoid contagious infectious diseases. This prevents them from being transferred to people and spread to the population. Some people can not be protected by vaccination. For example, children who are too young to be vaccinated, people with a weakened immune system that is incompatible with all conditions after the application of the vaccine and those who are too sick to receive the vaccine (for example, cancer patients). Vaccination can provide "collective protection" and for those who could not be vaccinated. The main component of the vaccine is antigens, the active ingredient of the vaccine. It stimulates / stimulates the immune system to create immunity. Adjuvants are similar in function. They promote stimulation of the immune system. Together, they form an active ingredient in the vaccine. Vaccines may also contain very small amounts of other substances that do not stimulate the immune system and therefore are inactive. They are of second importance and include, in particular, antibiotics, preservatives and stabilizers. The antigen is administered to the organism in a vaccine in various forms, such as live attenuated viral particles, killed viral particles or only parts of the virus, surface bacterial antigens or antigens within the bacteria.

In Slovakia, compulsory and optional vaccination is available. They must be vaccinated against ten diseases, optionally against other thirteen diseases, of which 4 vaccinated traps. Vaccination of children against diphtheria, tetanus, chitosan, polio, hepatitis B virus and haemophilia of invasive diseases is mandatory under regular mandatory vaccinations, as well as immunization against smallpox, rheumatism and rubella. Within regular, mandatory vaccinations, adults should be vaccinated against diphtheria and tetanus.

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"Compulsory vaccination is available for all children in Slovakia and is covered by public health insurance. Due to strict adherence to the obligation of vaccination
there was a high rate of vaccination in Slovakia and thus protection of the population from diseases covered by compulsory vaccinations ", Marta Španikova, MD, Photo: SANOFI

Vaccination schedule is developed by experts based on expert knowledge, long experience, incidence of diseases in the SR and surrounding countries, recommendations ECDC – European Center for Disease Control and Prevention and VHO – World Health Organization. The most successful preventive program in Slovakia is National immunization program. Its goal is to protect public health by reducing disease, eliminating and eradicating transmissible diseases and ensuring effective and safe immunization of children and adults.

Any reduction in vaccination reduces the effect of collective protection, which means increasing the risk of epidemics and endangering the most vulnerable. It does not matter that you do not need to be vaccinated against diseases that do not occur! Collective protection is also important for national security. Free movement of people in the EU and increased migration affect the safety and health of the Slovaks. The rate of vaccination of children against smallpox in Slovakia fell below 95% in four regions: Bratislava, Trenčianski, Banskobistricky and Košicky. One of the unpleasant consequences was the scar epidemic in eastern Slovakia, when it affected 428 people!

If the parent does not refuse the required vaccination for children without showing serious medical or other doctors, a fine of EUR 331. Compulsory vaccination, however, does not impose fines for refusal, but the prevention of infectious diseases that can be prevented by vaccination. Compulsory vaccination is available for all children in Slovakia and is covered by public health insurance. Due to strict adherence to the obligation of vaccination, Slovakia has so far achieved a high degree of vaccination and, therefore, protection of the population against diseases covered by compulsory vaccinations.

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"In 2009, 6 pregnant women died in the SARI pandemic flu in Slovakia, up to 46,15% of cases!", MUDr. Miroslav Kotek. Photo: SANOFI

An important period when vaccination is needed is also pregnancy. Women's immunity and the functioning of her body go through a series of changes during pregnancy, which facilitates the appearance of infectious diseases. Before pregnancy, a woman should have all the required vaccinations to help her protect her and her baby. Live vaccinations should be given at least a month before the planned pregnancy. The most important thing is vaccination against puppies of puppies if their wife does not survive. Vaccines that are not living can be given immediately before pregnancy and, if necessary, during pregnancy. Every pregnant woman should be vaccinated against influenza every year from October to December and vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and black cough (dTap) at the 28th to 37th week of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the flu can cause severe complications for the mother and fetus, including death. In 2009, 6 pregnant women died of a pandemic influenza in SARI in Slovakia, which was as high as 46.15% of cases! The direct transmission of the flu from mother to child during pregnancy is rare, but the cause of sleep was in the first trimester. A flu virus causes a neuron tube. Mother's Influenza is associated with a fourfold increase in fetal neoplasia-fetal tumors when their absolute numbers are low. Children of mothers with infected influenza are lagging behind during their childhood. Postpartum vaccination is also important for mother and child. An inoculated mother reduces the risk of infections of her baby. Pregnancy immediately after birth is safe for the mother even if breastfeeding. A woman who has not been vaccinated against tetanus, diphtheria and black cough during pregnancy should be inoculated immediately after delivery if she has not been vaccinated for the last five years.

Groups of people who were or were at greater risk of infection were necessarily vaccinated in Slovakia in selected cases in accordance with the Decree of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Slovakia 585 dated 10 December. 2008 on Determining Details on the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases. These are, for example, people who have come into contact with diseases due to tuberculosis, meningitis or viral hepatitis A. Mandatory vaccines are also people living in a common household with a person suffering from hepatitis B and rabies who is obliged to vaccinate people who have come into contact with the animal beast. Anti-pneumococcal infections are mandatory for people to be housed in social services homes.

There are also professions in which certain vaccines are required. Tuberculosis vaccines are, for example, some doctors, laboratory workers or asylum workers. Epidemiologists, soldiers, members of the Correctional Corps, firefighters and others have been vaccinated against hepatitis A. Hepatitis B vaccine is awaiting hepatitis B, lecturers in health schools, social service employees, labor offices, social issues and families, municipalities, children's institutions for social and legal protection and social protection staff. Vaccination against rabies is mandatory for employees in virological laboratories dealing with rabies virus, employees in institutions for the protection of patients at direct risk of infection; and sharks. Vaccination against inflamed tissue is compulsory for staff of virologic laboratories working with the type of inflammation virus. Other vaccines are recommended for other groups of people and professionals.

Slovakia has undertaken an obligation to the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), which is the development of an immunization program and its financial sustainability. Vaccination is part of an anti-antibiotic program. The state has responsibility for citizens, especially for the health of children, older and marginalized groups. It is our duty to protect our health in this way!

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