The law "To ensure the functioning of the Ukrainian language as a state language" came into effect on July 16, 2019
On July 16 came into force in Ukraine the scandalous law "To ensure the functioning of the Ukrainian language as a state language," which is called the law on total Ukrainization.
The most resonant of your articles will begin to work later, however, some rules will come into effect as of today.
It is interesting that, today, Russia has convened the United Nations Security Council on this issue – Moscow believes that Ukrainian law violates the rights of Russian speakers in mass and creates preconditions for a civil conflict in Ukraine.
In addition, one of the reasons for the protests in the Southeast of Ukraine after Maidan was precisely the repeal of the language law in February 2014, when the Rada was under Euromaidan control .
This law gave the regions, along with the Ukrainians, the right to use local languages - for office work, courts, etc.
And today the new act of this work arose: the linguistic rights of the national minorities begin to be reduced to the minimum
"Country" explains what areas of life will be Ukrainian, from July 16 and what will change over time.
Why did you approve this law?
This document introduces a real monopoly of Ukrainian in all areas of public life. The objective is to force the Russian language out of a place where the state bed has not yet been standing: from restaurants and shops, newspapers, the Internet, schools and universities, etc.
At the same time, you enter the qualifications of the "mobile police" and the language for public work. Only one exception was made for people's deputies.
The law was passed on the eve of the second round of presidential elections. And it was signed – after the defeat of Poroshenko, which until May 20 still retained its authority and managed to approve the bill.
That is, the previous government decided to adopt this law, when I understood that I had lost the elections. And he can not count on the voices of the Russian-speaking electorate.
He already says that the law of society, to put it mildly, is not popular. And in the business environment, which will affect Ukrainian, they began to talk about the collapse of industry, in particular, of the written press, which was forced to print part of the circulation in the Ukrainian language.
In the international arena, the law has bothered Hungary, which demands the protection of the rights of its minorities. And in the European Union, Ukrainians at the stage of adoption were discriminatory.
However, this did not stop Poroshenko – even then decided to move to the electoral niche of the Lviv region.
And today, the supporters of the former president on social networks share happy photographs and the people's deputies, the authors of the document, remember how they made such a fateful decision.
Vladimir Zelensky immediately after the adoption of the law (then Ze had already won the election, but had not yet become president), commented that it was quite simplified, but expressed some concern and promised to "analyze" as soon as possible how to become president
However, one month later, Ze became the head of the State, but there are no indications that at least I have done some sort of analysis of his team. Although many voters voted for Zelensky in the hope that he would stop fulfilling the total Ukrainization of Poroshenko's time.
"Ze did not have 58 days as president and a quarter since the date of promise even to begin to analyze draconian law on language. We honor the promises of Zelensky. After killing the dragon, Zelensky himself goes turn into Poroshenko, "writes journalist Denis Ivanesko.
At the moment, there is only one attempt to curb total Ukrainisation: the appeal to the Constitutional Court of the Deputies of the Platform of the Opposition for Life and the opposition bloc with the obligation to declare the law unconstitutional .
But when this resource is taken into account, it is not clear.
So far it can only be said that the law has come into force. Although not all of its rules will begin to act immediately.
"Country" remembers how it will be launched.
What will happen from July 16?
Therefore, as of today, the Ukrainian language will eventually go in state and local authorities, regardless of the region. That is, meetings, meetings and meetings – only in the state language. Documents and procedures.
In boats since July 16, they are obligated to make decisions and issue "only in Ukrainian language."
In APU – Authorized communication, service, circulation of documents – in the state language.
Law enforcement agencies i border guards He has to communicate with the citizens in the Ukrainian language, the same goes for the service, the workflow. When communicating with foreigners, the border guards can change to another language that is understandable to cross the border.
The Ukrainian language becomes obligatory in the field of education, from the nursery homes, ending with the universities. At the same time, parallel education is allowed in the languages of national minorities in elementary school and in kindergarten, if separate classes or groups are created. In universities, this possibility is not provided, but "in one of the official languages of the EU", which does not include Russian, can read certain disciplines.
The law also says that people belonging to indigenous peoples who started training before September 1, 2018, have a guaranteed training in their mother tongue before September 1, 2020 , with a gradual increase of subjects in Ukrainian. The list of indigenous peoples is not listed in the law, but only the Crimean Tatars are mentioned. The Russians do not refer to them.
Until 2023, representatives of national minorities, "whose languages are the official languages of the EU", can be studied in their mother tongue. This applies to the Hungarians and the Rumanians in Ukraine.
That is, the law does not take into account the interests of Russian-speaking citizens.
Durant elections bulletins and agitation must be in the state language.
Service in the field medicine It should also be in Ukrainian by default. At the request of someone requesting help, medical personnel can switch to another language.
The same requirements come into force when working. of transport. Ads and messages must be done in Ukrainian and, if necessary, in English. In other languages, information can be provided on international flights.
The changes affect the scope of use toponyms. They are not translated from Ukrainian, they must be transferred using the letters of the corresponding alphabet, according to the sound of the Ukrainian language.
For example, foreign airports can no longer use the name of Kiev – only Kiev. At the same time, it is not entirely clear how to convey Ukrainian toponymy in Russian. According to the logic of the law, in Russian, it will have to write "Kiev" instead of "Kiev" and "Dnipro" instead of "Dnipro", if we are talking about a river .
What will it change then?
After 4 months, with November 16, 2019, advertising must be completely Ukrainian. An exception is allowed if the advertising space is a means of communication, which is published in one of the EU languages.
Almost a year later, a May 16, 2020, science will translate completely into Ukrainian. Publications in scientific publications are only allowed in Ukrainian, English and in the official languages of the European Union. Public defense of theses – in Ukrainian and in English. Theses, monographs and abstracts should also be written in Ukrainian or English.
In medicine, diagnoses, recipes, certificates, appointments, medical records of patients will be in Ukrainian.
After a year and a half, with November 16, 2020, the entire scope of the service should be closer to the state language: this applies to stores, supermarkets, restaurants, beauty parlors, gyms, etc.
That is, starting on that day, in the box, they should no longer call "save, cancel." But only "ohorone – skasuvnya."
In the Ukrainian language you will have to translate the pages of online stores. The information (if the owners of these resources want it) can be duplicated in other languages. The labels of all products at this time also Ukrainize.
Two years later, with May 16, 2021, the citizenship can only be obtained after passing the examination on the knowledge of the Ukrainian language. The exception will be foreigners who served in the U.S. Armed Forces, people who receive state awards or those in which Ukraine will be interested. These people will be subject to the requirement to learn the language of the State in one year from the obtaining of citizenship.
Theatrical productions must be made in Ukrainian. The same thing happens with filming of films. The circulation of books in other languages will not exceed the circulation in Ukrainian.
Officials will be required to take an exam on language skills.
After two and a half years, with November 16, 2021Printed newspapers and magazines have to go to the Ukrainian language. This is not applicable to publications in the Crimean Tatar language, in English and in publications in other EU languages.
Three years later, with May 16, 2022, it should be a totally Ukrainian online medium registered in Ukraine. The page with the Ukrainian version of the test should automatically load, if you wish, there may be an option to read materials in another language, for example, Russian.
As of the same day, the violation of the law of the language will begin to be fined.
Officials face a fine of 200-400 non-taxable minimum (3400-6800 UAH). In the field of education, science, culture, sports – a violation of language policy will be charged with a fine of 200 to 300 non-taxable minimum (3400-5100 UAH). For the circulation of a newspaper in a non-state language – a fine of 6800-8500 UAH.
In the service sector, they will first declare a warning, if they do not remove the violation or repeat – a fine of 5100-6800 UAH. Repeated administrative violation during the year – will cost from 8500 to 11 900 UAH.
Five years later, with May 16, 2024, all mass media will change to the Ukrainian language, except Crimea-Tartu and English speaking. Language fees will be reduced to television, the percentage of mandatory Ukrainian language products will increase from 75 to 90% of the air.
By negligence of the Ukrainian language will begin to punish.
With January 1, 2030 The VNO (independent independent evaluation) will translate completely into the state language.