Saturday , May 8 2021

The ancient explorer "super-earth" has discovered around the orbits of the surrounding star

The nearest only star to the Sun seems to have a large, icy planet.

Astronomers have found strong evidence of a cold alien world about 3.2 times more massive than the Earth's circle Barnard's star, a red dwarf that is only 6 light-years away from the sun. Barnard's star is the closest neighbor of our sun, except the Alpha Centauri system with three stars, which is about 4.3 light years old.

The new discovered world, known as Barnard's star b, is currently a candidate for the planet. But researchers who have noticed this are certain that an alien planet will eventually be confirmed. [Barnard’s Star b: What We Know About the “Super-Earth’ Candidate]

"After a very careful analysis, we are 99 percent sure that the planet is there," said Ignasi Ribas of the Catalonia Space Institute and the Institute of Space Science in Spain.

"However, we will continue to observe this fast star to exclude possible, but incredible, natural variations of starlight that could be masked like a planet," said Ribas, the lead author of the new study, announcing the discovery of Barnard's Star b. This study was published online today (November 14th) in the journal Nature.

Artistic impression of the newcomer

Barnard's Star b, if confirmed, will not be the nearest ecoplanet on Earth. This mark holds around Prokima b of the world size land, which orbits Prokima Centauri, one of the Alpha Centauri trophies.

NASA's Kepler Space Telescope has shown that small planets are common in the Milky Way galaxy. Together, Prokima b and Barnard's star b strongly suggest that such worlds are "also common in our environment," says co-author Johanna Teska, a department of earth magnetism at Carnegie Science Institute in Washington, DC, for "And it's really exciting."

Near the solar neighborhood

Barnard's star was named after American astronomer E. E. Barnard, who discovered in 1916 the speed mentioned by Ribas. No other star moves faster across the sky than the Barnard star, which travels around a full moon every 180 years. [Gallery: The Strangest Alien Planets]

This seamlessly obvious movement is due to the proximity of Barnard's star and its high (but not the record) velocity of 50000 km / h in relation to the Sun.

RELATED: 2018 Space Calendar:


2018 Space Calendar

See Gallery

January 1st 2. Supermoon / Full Volf Moon

The Moon will make its closest approach to the Earth on New Year's Day and it will look larger and brighter than the usual, making it a difference to "Superman".

In addition, the first full moon of any year earns the very distinction of "Full Moon Moon". The term was created by Indian Americans, as the nodding of the wolves who pulled in, which they often heard in front of their villages in January.

Photo: Matt Cardi / Getti Images

January 3, 4. Kuadrantids Meteor shover

Kuadrantide meteor shower, known for producing 50-100 meteors during peak hours, is the first major meteor shower in 2018.

Unfortunately, the light from almost a full moon will block most of the show.

Photo: NurPhoto / NurPhoto via Getti Images

January 31: Total Lunar Eclipse / Blue Moon

The Blue Moon is the term for the second full month of the month with more than one full moon.

The January Blue Moon also agrees with total lunar eclipse.

Photo by REUTERS / Mike Hutchings

February 15: Partial Solar Eclipse

This type of solar eclipse occurs when the Moon throws a shadow that only covers a part of the Sun.

Partial sunshine on February 15 will be visible only in parts of South America and Antarctica. Those who want to catch him must wear special protective goggles.

Photo: REUTERS / Tatiana Makeieva TPKS PHOTOS DAYS

March 2: Full Moon Worm

Another expression coined by Native Americans, "Full Moon Worm" is the difference that is given to the first full moon in March.

As the temperature becomes warmer, the soil begins to soften, and the glogens begin to re-glide over the ground.

Photo: NIKOLAS KAMM / AFP / Getti Images

March 15: Merkur reaches the largest eastern outbreak

On March 15, Merkur will reach the largest eastern stretch of the sun (ie the Most Dots above the horizon).

This will make the planet more visible than usual.

Photo: Royal Observatory Greenwich, London

April 22, 23: Lirid Meteor Shover

Lid meteor shower, which usually produces about 20 meteors per hour, reaches its peak between the night of April 22 and the morning of July 23.

Photo: Ie Aung Thu / AFP / Getti Images

April 30: Full pink month

"Full Pink Moon" is another expression that is believed to be concealed by American tribes.

In April, the weather finally begins to warm up, and the flowers begin to appear, earning a month full moon with its nice name.

Photo: Ben Birchall / PA Images via Getti Images

May 6, 7. Eta Akuarid Meteor Shover

A meteor shower Eta Akuarids, made up of dust particles left by Halle's "Comet", can produce up to 60 meteors an hour at a peak.

Although most of its activities can be viewed on the southern hemisphere, Norwegians can continue to participate in the show if weather conditions allow it.

Photo: NASA

May 9: Jupiter reached the opposition

The gas giant will make its closest approach to Earth on May 9, which will look brighter than any other year of the year.

Photo: Archives of Universal History via Getti Images

May 29: Full Month of Flowers

Maya for a full moon this name was given to native American tribes, because the beginning of the month is typical when the flowers are full of flowers.

Photo: REUTERS / Navesh Chitrakar TPKS PHOTOS DAYS

June 27: Saturn reaches the opposition

On June 27, Saturn will make its closest approach to Earth, which will look brighter than any other time of the year.

Photo: NASA / JPL-Caltech / Space Science Institute / REUTERS

Jun 28: A Month with lots of strawberries

As the last full moon of spring, Stargazers can expect this to be large and bright – but contrary to their name, it is not red.

The harvest season for strawberries reached its peak in June, earning its first month by month its delicious name.

Photo: Matt Cardi / Getti Images

July 13: Partial Solar Eclipse

This type of solar eclipse occurs when the Moon throws a shadow that covers only part of the Sun.

A partial solar eclipse on July 13 will be visible only in parts of southern Australia and Antarctica. Those who want to catch him must wear special protective goggles.


July 27: Mars reaches its opposition

You assumed – Mars will make its closest approach to Earth on July 27th, which will look brighter and, thus, more visible than any other time of the year.

Photo: NASA / Handout via Reuters

July 27: Full Buck Moon

July's full moon is called the "Full Buck Moon" of Indian tribes, as it appears during this period of the year when male deer began to grow its new roller coaster.

Photo: REUTERS / Carlo Allegri

28 July 29: Total Lunar Eclipse

Total lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes through the shadow of the Earth, and the Moon gives a monthly look.

Julian lunar eclipse will be visible in North America, East Asia and Australia.

Photo: REUTERS / Kacper Pempel

August 11: Partial Solar Eclipse

This type of solar eclipse occurs when the Moon throws a shadow that only covers a part of the Sun.

Partial sunshine on August 11 will be visible only in parts of Canada, Greenland, Northern Europe and North and East Asia. Those who want to catch him must wear special protective goggles.


August 12, 13: Perseid Meteor Shover

The Perseids meteor shower, made up of dust particles left by the Svift-Tuttle piece, can produce up to 60 meteors an hour at a peak.

A thin crescent moon on the night of August 12th will create favorable viewing conditions for the celestial spectacle, which should be visible all over the world.

Photo: REUTERS / Paul Hanna

August 17: Venus reached the largest eastern exit

Venus will make its closest approach to Earth on August 17, which will make it brighter and therefore more visible than any other time of the year.

Photo: Photo12 / UIG via Getti Images

August 26: Full Moon

August's full moon recorded this difference from the Indian tribes, as it was easiest to catch the sturgeon this month.

Photo: Pradita Utana / NurPhoto via Getti Images

September 7: Neptune reaches its opposition

Neptune will make its closest approach to Earth on September 7th, which will look brighter, and thus more visible, than any other time of the year.

However, due to its distance from the Earth, blue planets will appear only as a small point even for those using telescopes.

Photo: Time Life Pictures / NASA / LIFE Picture Collection / Getti Images)

September 24, 25: Full Moon Harvest

The name "Harvest Month" goes to the full moon, which is most often encountered with the fallen plains every year.

Photo: Santiago Vidal / LatinContent / Getti Images

October 8: Draconide meteor shower

A draconian meteor shower, consisting of dust particles left by the comet 21P Giacobini-Zinner, produces only about 10 meteors per hour at its peak.

However, the new month in the night of 9 October will create extremely favorable viewing conditions for the shower, which should be visible around the world.

Photo: NASA

October 21, 22. Orionid Meteor Shover

Another shower produced by the Hallei comet, Orionides is likely to be at least partly blocked in light for almost the full month of October 21st.

Photo by Iuri Smitiuk TASS via Getti Images

October 23: Uranus reaches its opposition

Uran will achieve its closest approach to Earth on October 23, which will look brighter, and thus more visible, than any other time of the year.

Unfortunately, it's so far from Earth that it will not be visible without a powerful telescope.

Photo: Laboratory for Life / Jet Propulsion Laboratories / NASA / LIFE Images Collection / Getti Images

October 24: Full hunter

October full moon is called "Full Hunter's Moon" by American tribes, as animals are easily noticed during this period of the year after the plants lose their leaves /

Photo: PA Vire / PA images

November 5, 6. Taurids Meteor Shover

Taurids is a small meteor shower that only produces between 5-10 meteors per hour at its peak.

Photo: NASA

November 17: Leonid Meteor Shover

The Leonid meteor shower, which radiates from the constellation Leo, produces about 15 meteors per hour at its peak.

Photo: Ali Jarekji / Reuters

November 23: Full Moon Beaver

November's full moon got the name of the tribe Native America, which during the month set the bugs in the hope of creating creatures for their warm fur.

Photo: Matt Cardi / Getti Images

December 13, 14. Geminids Meteor Shover

The Geminida meteor shower, made from the remains left by the asteroid known as the 3200 Phaethon, is known to be one of the most spectacular in its kind.

The show can produce up to 120 meteors an hour at a peak and will be visible across the globe at night on December 13th.

Photo: REUTERS / Navesh Chitrakar

December 21, 22. Ursids Meteor Shover

A draconian meteor shower, made up of dust particles left by Tuttle Comet, produces only about 10 meteors an hour at a peak.

Unfortunately, the full moon on December 22 is likely to create unfavorable viewing conditions for a smaller show.

Photo: REUTERS / Daniel Aguilar DA / LA

December 22: A full cold month

It is surprising that the December full moon was named after the American tribe after a cold, winter time.

Photo: Matt Cardi / Getti Images



And the Barnard star is approaching us daily: For about 10,000 years, the red dwarf will take over the system of the most beautiful star from the Alpha Centauri system. At that time, only 3.8 light years will separate Barnard's Star from the sun.

Barnard's star is twice as old than the Earth's sun, sixth is massive and only 3 percent light. Because Barnard's star is so weak, its "wearing zone" – the range of distance in which liquid water can be on the world's surface – lies very close. Indeed, researchers estimate that this zone has a tile that ranges from 0.06 AU to 0.10 AU from the star. (One AU or astronomical unit is the distance of the Earth – about 93 million miles or 150 million kilometers.)

The concept of habitable zones is, of course, inconvenient. Assessing the true life in the world requires a strong working knowledge of atmospheric composition and thickness, among other characteristics. This information is hard to find for exoplanets.

Long search

Barnard's star has long been a target of Exoplan hunters, but their search has always become vacant – until now.

A new detection was not easy: Ribas and his team analyzed huge amounts of data, both archive and novelty, before they finally dug Barnard's star b.

They used the method of "radial velocity", which requires changes in starlight caused by the gravitational gravity of a planet that circles the planet. Such sadness causes the star to turn slightly, shifting its light towards the red wavelengths sometimes toward the blue end of the spectrum in others, as seen from the Earth. [7 Ways to Discovery Alien Planets]

"We used observations from seven different instruments, which included 20 years of measurement, making this one of the largest and most comprehensive data ever used for precise radial velocity studies," Ribas said in the same statement. "The combination of all data has led to a total of 771 measurements – a huge amount of information!"

Never before has the radial velocity method been used to find such a small planet in such a distant orbit, said the study team members. (Large, close planets strongly affect their host stars and therefore cause more dramatic and easier detection, shift of light.)

These seven instruments were the Search Engineer Planet Radial Velocity Planet (HARPS), at the La Silla Observatory of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile; Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph on a very large telescope, at ESO's Paranal Observatory in Chile; HARPS-North, on the Galileo National Telescope on the Canary Islands; High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer, at the Keck 10 meter telescope in Hawaii; Researcher Planet Finder Spectrograph of Carnegie Institute, on Magellan 6.5m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile; Automated Planet Finder at the 2.4 m telescope at the Lick Universiti Observatory in California; i & CARMENES, at the Calar Alto Observatory in Spain.

The researchers also discovered hints for another possible planet in the system, circling further from Barnard's star b-farther, with an orbital period of 6,600 Earth days. But this second signal is too weak to be considered a candidate for the planet, Teske said.

"There is not enough data," said.

Frigid super-Earth

Barnard's star b is at least 3.2 times larger than our planet, making it "super-Earth" – a class of worlds that is much larger than Earth, but smaller than "ice giants" such as Neptune and Uranus.

The new candidate for the planet ranges from 0.4 AU from its star and ends one orbit every 233 days of the Earth, according to a new study.

This orbital distance is similar to that of Merkur radiation in our solar system. But since Barnard's star is so weak, the potential planet lies exactly around the snow line of the system – a region in which volatile materials such as water can condense into solid ice.

"Until now, only giant planets have been discovered at a great distance from their stars," said Rodrigo Diaz of the Institute of Astronomy and Physics of the National Council of Scientific and Technical Research and the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. following the article "News and Views", which was published today in Nature.

"The discovery of a low mass planet near the snow line puts strong constraints on formation models for this planet type," added Diaz, who was not included in the new study.

Barnard's b, if she does exist, is not a very promising place of life as we know, at least not on the surface. The potential planet is probably very cold, with an estimated surface temperature of minus 275 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 170 degrees Fahrenheit), said the study team members.

The confirmation of Barnard's star b probably does not come from additional radial velocity measurements, writes Dijas. However, super-precise measurements of the position of stars, such as those now made by the spacecraft of the European Space Agency Gaia, can work in the next few years, he added.

"Even more exciting, a new generation of terrestrial instruments, which will also come into operation in 2020, should be able to directly image the reported planet and its light spectrum," wrote Dijas.

"Using this spectrum, the characteristics of the planet's atmosphere-like winds and rotation speeds-could be concluded," he added. "This extraordinary planet, therefore, gives us a key piece in the puzzle of planetary formation and evolution, and can be among the first low-mass exponents whose atmosphere has been thoroughly examined."

Want more stories about EKSOPLANETS?


Source link