Wednesday , February 24 2021

The researchers do it in the simulation of evolution to discover the best way to fly



The best forms of wing, such as the one shown above, are found with strong vortices on the back which were not interfered with the vortices generated at the back edge. The picture is from an experiment that reveals ideal forms of airfoil for flight arrows, with the flows generated in the front of the wing [red] and the back part [green] visualized using fluorescent dyes. Credit: The Applied Math Lab, NYU's Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences

A team of mathematicians has determined the ideal way to fly fast: a discovery that offers promises to obtain better methods for collecting energy from the water, as well as to improve the speed of the air.


The work, which appears in the magazine Acts of the Royal Society A, is based on a technique that imitates evolutionary biology to determine which structure obtains the best rate.

"We can simulate the biological evolution in the laboratory by generating a population of different ways, that compete to achieve a desired goal, in this case, the speed, and then have the best breed of the wings for make related ways that do it better, "says Leif Ristroph, assistant professor at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences at the University of New York and the lead author of the paper.

In conducting these determinations, the researchers conducted a series of experiments in the applied mathematics laboratory at the University of New York. Here, they created 3-D printed wings that moved mechanically and faced each other, with the "breeding" winners through an evolutionary or genetic algorithm to create ever faster pamphlets.

In order to mimic this process of reproduction, the researchers began the experiment with 10 different forms, the propulsion speeds were measured. The algorithm then selected the pairs of the fastest wings ("parents") and combined their attributes to create even faster "daughters" that were printed and tested in 3D. They repeated this process to create 15 generations of children, with each generation producing descendants faster than the previous one.

Experiments that reveal ideal forms of aerodynamic profile for flight arrows, with the flows generated at the front of the wing [red] and the back part [green] visualized using fluorescent dyes. The best forms of wing are found to form strong vortices on the back which were not interfered with the vortices generated at the front. Credit: NYU applied mathematics lab

"This process of" survival of the fastest "automatically discovers a faster wing in the form of tears that more effectively manipulates the flows to generate momentum," explains Ristroph. In addition, because we have explored a wide variety of forms in our study, we have also been able to identify exactly what aspects of the form were most responsible for the strong performance of the faster wings. "

Their results showed that the fastest form of the wing has a thin spring edge, which helps to generate strong vortex or swirling flows during flaking. Leave a trace of these eddies as you push the fluid to push forward.

"We see work as a case study and concept test for a much wider class of complex engineering problems, especially those that involve flux objects, such as rationalizing the way to minimize dragging, A structure, "observes Ristroph. "We think that this could be used, for example, to optimize the structure of water energy wastewater collection."


Explore more:
How do fish and birds hang? The researchers find that the answer is a wake for purpose

More information:
Improvement of the propulsion speed of a wing of elevation through the artificial evolution of the shape, Acts of the Royal Society A, rspa.royalsocietypublishing.or … .1098 / rspa.2018.0375

Journal reference:
Acts of the Royal Society A

Provided by:
University of New York


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