A new study in León, but representative of all of Spain, reveals how the number of tumors associated with tobacco has increased significantly in recent decades
When analyzing the data available between 1997 to 2014, researchers have found that the increase in the cancer-related numbers of smoking habits is more pronounced among women.
Tumors associated with tobacco use have increased markedly in recent decades. A study that ranges from 1997 to 2014 and includes 7,103 cases in León reveals that this increase is especially marked between the women. The figures are similar to those of the rest of the Spanish population and denote the importance of this avoidable risk factor.
In the first triennial studied, from 1997 to 1999, the rate of incidence per 100,000 men was 116.4 cases. In the last decade that includes this work, from 2012 to 2014, it reached 228. The numbers among the female population are lower, but the increase is more pronounced. At the end of the 1990s, there were 19.8 cases for every 100,000 women, while in the last triennium analyzed 44.5 was reached, much more than double.
Researchers estimate that 59% of the cancer cases analyzed could be directly attributed to tobacco
"75% of the tumors analyzed correspond to lung and bladder cancer, but there are many more, such as lip, tongue, gum, mouth, oropharynge, nasopharynx, hypopharynx, nasal pituitary and larynx, among other" , explains Lidia García Martínez, of the Institute of Biomedicine (IBIOMED) of the University of León.
The increase in the total number of cases every year is very marked, from just over 300 in 1997 to nearly 500 in 2014, according to the data published in the magazine Family Medicine of the Spanish Society of Primary Care Physicians (SEMERGEN). "We estimate that 59% could be directly attributed to tobacco, with about 170 deaths each year in the León area of health," said the expert.
Among the most striking data on the study there is also the large increase registered among women, about 30 cases in 1997 to almost 80 in 2014. "It is mainly due to the increase in the prevalence of smoker women initiated in previous decades and maintained in the news ", warns Lidia García.
Greater probability in some municipalities
In the province you will find some geographic differences that are determined by the tobacco habit. For this reason the analysis incorporates the concept of relative risks, that is, the more likely a person to suffer cancer (in this case, associated with tobacco) in a given municipality. The study indicates that in Villadangos del Páramo and in Valencia de Don Juan the probability of suffering the tumors analyzed is three and four times greater, respectively, with regard to the average of the area studied.
"The geographic differences found indicate the need to apply preventive strategies adapted to local situations, which reduce the prevalence of smokers and prevent the incorporation of young people," he says.
The data of this search may be useful for prevention. In general, "the message we want to launch is very clear, every year, tobacco kills more than seven million people in the world, deaths that could be avoided by failing to consume," says the researcher at IBIOMED.
For this, "the first is to know that we are facing a public health problem that is totally avoidable, reducing the number of new smokers by increasing the price of tobacco and making it difficult for them to access, and helping smokers to leave it."
75% of the tumors analyzed correspond to lung and bladder cancer
The figures registered in Leon are in line with those of the set of Spain contributed by other authors, especially with regard to the incidence of lung and bladder cancer, which increase clearly in both sexes in recent years.
However, in this area of health there are also some particularities. For example, rates of laryngeal cancer in women are among the highest in Spain, around a case for 100,000 inhabitants. In the case of men, they present a rate of 14.6 per 100,000, a value similar to the rest of the communities.
"This heterogeneous distribution of tumors has not been observed in our area, since previous studies of lung and bladder cancer do not get the marked geographic difference that appears when all tumors related to tobacco are included," points out # 39; expert
This same team has already studied the main tumors registered in León: colon, gastric, breast, prostate and bladder cancers. From now on, in the next research papers, they could extend the period of study of many of them or continue studying other relevant tumors.
Incidence, trend and municipal distribution of tobacco-associated tumors in the Health Area of León: 1997-2014. L. García-Martínez, V. Davila Batista, L. Estévez Iglesias, C. González Donquiles, A. De La Hera Magallanes, A. J. Molina de la Torre. Family Medicine-SEMERGEN. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.semerg.2018.09.008