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Genetic secrets of peanut varieties are revealed



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Scientists found that their sequence was comparable in size to that of the human genome

Peanuts address nutritional demands in underdeveloped countries, as they are a rich source of protein and fatty acids. has decoded the complete set of chromosomes of two widely cultivated peanut varieties that belong to the subspecies hypnotic i fastigiata

Genetic decoding, known as the genome sequence of reference, helps to understand the mechanisms at the cell level that make a variety score better than the other. For peanuts, the decisive factors are a high content of oil and proteins, resistance to disease and heat and a high yield.

Gene sequencing is a complex and exhaustive process of many years. The process involves several stages: isolating the DNA of the high quality of the target plant and cutting it into pieces. Next, it is placed in a sequencing machine. With the help of special tools and bioinformatics programs, genes sequencing is synthesized.

Peanuts, with their agricultural history of more than 6,000 years, have complex genomes. In this study, scientists found that their sequence was comparable in size to that of the human genome that had just over 3,000 million pairs of DNA bases with 83,709 genes that control their features.

During this process, the team discovered that the peanut variety was a tetraploid, which means that the cultivated genus of cacao is the home of two genomes of different subspecies. They also found that the exchange of genomes occurred when one dominated the other.

"The natural tetraploid is the result of the natural hybridization (crossing) of two named wild species Arachisduranesnis i Arachisipaensis. The genome of cultivated peanut is the home of the two genomes of the subspecies. Living and coordinating together, this double diploid genome decides the quality of crops we see in the fields, "explained Rajeev Varshney, director of the ICRISAT research program, while talking to Indian Science Thread.

The genome reference provides researchers with access to all peanut genes, which, in turn, will promote the discovery of genes and marker development studies. Without aflatoxin seeds and improvements in the quality of oil, "added Manish Pandey, senior scientist at ICRISAT.

This study will help expand the genetic basis for sustainable and strenuous production of arthropods to meet the challenges derived from itof climatic changes

The study included scientists from research institutes from China, Taiwan, Australia, USA, Argentina, Brazil, Japan, France and Korea, as well as India. The research was published in two articles in the journal Nature Genetics. The Indian team included Manish K Pandey, Rajeev K Varshney, Vanika Garg, Amir W Khan, Prasad Bajaj and Annapurna Chitikineni (ICRISAT); Polavarapu Bilhan Kavikishor (University of Osmania) and Senjuti Sinharoy (National Institute for Research on Plant Genomes, New Delhi).

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